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[Table] Aubrey Cottle AMA Part 3
|What is like founding a collective of idiots?||pretty cool ngl|
|Is the reason you are so angry because you have a girls name?||Means king of the elves.|
|Why do you and by extension a lot of people use the face of a radical Catholic monarchist as your symbol? Just wondering||Our symbol is based on the United Federation of Planets.|
|Why did you blow up a van?!||Yellow is a nasty color ¯\_(ツ)_/¯|
|Thanks for doing all the good work!||I haven't had time to relax in months.|
|Dumb question, but what do you do to chill?||All of the above.|
|Edit: PS5 or XBox Series X? Or PC only?||Q answered above|
|What’s something an individual can do to protect their privacy online? Are there any vpns good enough?||Mullvad.|
|Is there any chance for Anonymous as an organization to come back full force to fight current menaces such as QAnon and the multitude of hate groups coming to rise in the US?||I sure as fuck hope so.|
|Hi Aubrey, thanks for this AMA, how do you feel about being the founder of Anonymous?||scrolling banner in every language of earth saying "what the fuck"|
|Say I had basic knowledge of computers, what would you say is important to learn in the future? What is a lucrative path that some may not see/realize?||InfoSec and A.I. are the two forefront career tracks in the modern world.|
|Can I get a reply from a living legend such as yourself?||fgsfds|
|Hey Kirt, do you think Jeffery Epstein actually killed himself??||𝐸𝑃𝑆𝑇𝐸𝐼𝑁 𝐷𝐼𝐷𝑁'𝑇 𝐾𝐼𝐿𝐿 𝐻𝐼𝑀𝑆𝐸𝐿𝐹|
|Hello! You said you’re 100% self taught, what resources should one look into and use in order to learn?||I have mentioned Roppers Academy in a previous reply.|
|Also, what would you say is the best dual authenticator for 2fa/ which one do you most regularly use?||I prefer Authy but Google Authenticator is also fine. Authy is compatible with those token types and some sites use it exclusively so, probably just get Authy.|
|Favorite OS? Or you coded your own?||macOS.|
|Answer to Q above||Terry Davis I am not. RIP.|
|Not sure if you'll get to this, but what tools would you recommend for someone trying to get in to Network Security/Cyber security field?||Wireshark is basically a requirement.|
|What is your favorite food?||Pizza.|
|Hey Aubrey, can you explain to us what QAnon is?||They think Trump is the saviour of mankind and a time traveller has come to abolish the deep state and that democrats and celebrities eat children.|
|It's being mentioned alot but most of us have no clue what it stands for.||Q answered above|
|Hi Aubrey! Thanks for doing this. If you were to create the shortest, most basic guide for internet security for the average joe, how would it go?||Use an offline password manager with complex generated passwords, keep your shit patched and up to date no matter how annoying those notifications are to you, use token-based two-factor authentication everywhere.|
|For people who aren't knowledgeable in the field, what really are the capabilities of Anonymous as a group, and of hackers as individuals? How limited (or unlimited) is that power? Many people seem to think Anonymous can take down governments, others seem to think that its impact is ultimately negligible. What's the rough truth? And can the average hacker get into your phone and read your messages if you have average security?||Honestly? Anonymous' power level is like a sine wave. With a big low dip after 2012.|
|Answer to Q above||No, they generally cannot. Just don't sideload that APK some shady guy sent you.|
|Hi Aubrey, I’m interested what about QAnon has made you so interested that you are spending all your time on it?||Their attempt to co-opt Anonymous filled me with a righteous fury I have not felt in over a decade.|
|To me it seems like such far fetched crazy shit that no one could buy in but is there a large known group that believe in this?||It's all a bunch of batshit nonsense.|
|The same Kirtaner from tcpdirect/ircd.chat?||tell kayos i said hi|
|Answer to Q above|||
|Answer to Q above||he is like my internet son|
|Why does it seem like the anonymous group always warns about big things and never actually goes through with anything?||Because after 2012 the movement was infested with roleplayers making vague threats for internet points while the skilled hackers ran for their lives.|
|Are you a strong believer in Blockchain technology? Do you think it will be good for us if we decentralized all control?||When in doubt, say "blockchain"|
|Has anyone really been far even as decided to use even go want to do look more like?||dsfargeg|
|Why should I care about passwords?||Because we hacked them 7 times.|
|Who would you vote for on November 3rd if you lived in the US and why? What do you agree and disagree with on the candidates. This election is batshit insane so I want some outside thoughts.||I have been highly considering playing through Watch Dogs 2 and Legion on Twitch so everyone can watch me cringe endlessly.|
|Also I've been playing watch dogs legion and you need to step up your graphic design lol. Dedsec has a cool art style. Also what do you think of watch dogs's whole parody/omage of you and other groups?||I'll probably laugh a lot. I actually emailed Ubisoft Toronto a few weeks ago but never got a response. Might now though...|
|Have you printed anything kewl with your Ender 3?||Buttplug prototypes.|
|How did you learn? I feel so useless because I can’t learn shit on my own. I’ll never get on your level. Thank you for doing this AmA!||I am self-taught and never completed schooling beyond grade 6.|
|Answer to Q above||No, seriously.|
|In a 1 - 10 scale, how hard would it be to get pass the Great Firewall of China and not get caught?||420|
|Why is anonymous so fucking cringe?||idk memes lol|
|Android or iPhone ?||iPhone because of Google privacy concerns and the fact that Apple takes personal data security seriously.|
|Answer to Q above||The decreased device and platform target footprint is also a minor boon to overall security.|
|Hi there Mr. Cottle, it’s kind of cool to have a chance to chat with you especially considering the issues that can arise from your line of profession. My question to you is; Do you think VPNs are actually a valid method to protecting your privacy? If so, which are the best ones in your opinion||Yes if they give a shit.|
|Answer to Q above||Mullvad.|
|Holy shit Kirt. How's Spardot?||Eh...|
|Why? Just as a general “why”? Like why did you even decide to do any of this?||Can you clarify? Do you mean at the beginning?|
|If the purpose of being in anonymous is to stay anonymous, why have you revealed your identity?||For my mental health after 13 years.|
|Do you have any insight into the scope of OpDeathEater or is there any plans for that?||I have no insight on that particular subject at present.|
|I hope you’re still answering questions. Is there any way to effectively win the internet censorship cat and mouse? Every so often they draft some shit like the FISA Amendments Act, EARN IT Act, or LAED Act. Is there a way for us to say we want the internet to be open and to protect encryption once and for all?||If everyone bands together and puts their foot down.|
|When's the last time you used good ole LOIC? Ah, memories...||¯\_(ツ)_/¯|
|What are you hoping someone here asks about?||If I can count to potato.|
|What's something you probably shouldn't tell us?||NICE TRY, FEDS|
|How do you feel about the anonymous YouTube page that just have a bunch of clickbait and meaningless jargon?||That is a fucking dumpster heap of a channel, calls itself "official", is full of conspiracy and Q bullshit, and I've been trying to get in touch with someone at YouTube to handle that situation properly.|
|Favorite meme?||Chargin' my lazer.|
|Were you a hacker yourself?||Yes, I was one of the blackhats.|
|Any specific reason you are covering up one of your eyes in this picture?||cuz im cool|
|Dont know if this will get answered but why not post this on the 5th of november?||Urgency of the Q issue.|
|How do you protect your mental health with all the shit and hate you end up seeing?||With memes, lulz, and irreverence.|
|Answer to Q above||Seriously, humour is what keeps us all from diving off a fucking cliff.|
|Hi Aubrey, it's really cool to talk to you!||Hell naw.|
|I've always admired Anonymous, but I heard that to join you had to hack into the local news.||By accident.|
|So my first question is "Is that true?" And my second is, you made this international revolutionary phenomenon. A. How? And B. How does it feel to have something you created be known to literally billions of people?||Unspeakably overwhelming.|
|Thanks for the AMA dude.||All they do is drive the systems to further be engineered to oppress and collect metadata. Don't be a useful idiot for Big Data.|
|Why should we be worried about our online privacy?||Q answered above|
|I often hear the argument “if I haven’t done anything wrong, I haven’t got anything to hide,” as a response to this (mostly from students).||Q answered above|
|Cheers!||Q answered above|
|What have reddit become?!?||Yes.|
|Ok I’ll do it, as used to be tradition.||Q answered above|
|Would you rather fight 1 horse sized duck, or 100 duck sized horse?..||Q answered above|
|Hi Aubrey, is anonymous only for people that are great with computers? Or do they also need other people? Asking for a friend that has no idea how to hack anything but wants to help||Spreading awareness and boosting the collective voice is arguably more important than wetwork.|
|how did Moot manage to effectively vanish from the internet? he may be a good case study.||Hiding in a bunker at Google.|
|Why do you think the alt-right and neofascists are "adopting the title," for lack of a better term, of anti-pedophilia to push such crazy and dangerous ideas? I assume it has something to do with trying to sound credible or rightous.||Dehumanizing your enemy is a time-tested tactic to win hearts and minds.|
|Reading about all the data harvested for ads and things like the algorithm, how does one go invisible?||uBlock all the things and use privacy-oriented browsers like Brave or Tor.|
|Can you delete my student loan debt records for me?||I wish|
|Pretty please?||Q answered above|
|Do you have any children or plan to have in the future?||If I have a son I think Dade is an obligatory name, here. Kate if a girl.|
|Do you feel bad about founding a group which has seen some of its members end up in jail?||Yes.|
|Answer to Q above||This has actually weighed heavily on my mind for a long time. My reappearance was difficult and involved lots of crying and feeling like shit.|
|Idk what questions have and haven’t been asked before but you are still responding so I’ll have a go. Do you support trans rights?||Trans rights are human rights.|
|Answer to Q above||Fun fact, an overwhelming proportion of the old IHM veterans are trans.|
|Do you have stairs in your house?||*sigh* pak chooie unf|
|u/Kirtaner-420chan||not420chan[.]com/org was mine and the home of /i/ for a very long time, in various different subdomain configurations and the like. I actually still own those. Hal Turner stole .org for a while. Hilarious story, related to when his domains were pilfered.|
|Can you finally definitively tell us what's the deal with 420chan.net and not420chan and the original owner of those sites and his story?||420chan[.]net was FuxNet/jihad and our brief feud resulted in a beautiful friendship|
|The internet scrolls on this portion of history are sparse and fragmentary.||Q answered above|
|Hey Aubrey, I am about to start going for my BA in CN/IT and want to get into security and pen testing. Would you have any advice or know of any good resources worth looking into?||Roppers Academy.|
|Hey this is pretty cool of you to do and to help out. What's one of the most comical things you personally have done as Anonymous?||The time we trolled the everloving shit out of Yahoo Answers so hard they had to shut it down for a day|
|What's your take on Palantir?||Disgusting.|
|Are you getting paid by Ubisoft for hyping hacktivism for the sake of promoting the new Watchdogs game which oh so conveniently came out a few days ago?||They wouldn't even return my email two weeks ago so lmao|
|Why did you get a known FBI informant to verify you on twitter? Could you not find anyone better?||He had the "founder" nod before I went public and this is peaceful transfer of power.|
|Answer to Q above||Also he did it himself, I did not ask.|
|What's up with so many notable-ish channers/goons pulling a hard 180 going from slur-spouting shitposters to Twitter-haunting Moral Authorities over the course of the last 10 years? Observing the difference is fascinating!||We've seen what it does to an impressionable youth audience.|
|How old are you? And how is your personal life going after all this? Do you get recognised much?||33|
|Answer to Q above||I was called out in public shockingly often throughout 2007.|
|What is the question you were hoping to see get asked here?||"Hi, I'm from the Twitter Verifications team, would you like to set that up?"|
|Answer to Q above||i'm kidding but you run out of serious questions after enough hours of sleep deprivation and near-overdose level shitposting|
|Hi!||We've been actively combating that.|
|What's your opinion on the anonymous "brand" being utilized by the alt-right in certain societies, e.g. Germany?||Q answered above|
|How long does it take you to access an average Joe's phone or PC?||too vague to answer, depends on patches :)|
|Did you use the mask of a monarchist ironically?||yes|
|Can you tell me some secrets I'm willing to go through any security measures||Yes|
|Is Qanon actually run by the guy who stole 2chan?||Q answered above|
|Am I imagining things or did you host an old school Ragnarok Online server once upon a time?||Yes, I ran Spyder Ragnarok Online. I have the v2 client installed in WINE for nostalgia.|
|Spider Lake or something like that?||For others' knowledge, this was in 2002-2005 or so.|
|>Deep research, and hard facts.||I can't tip my hand.|
|Is quite a non-answer to the question||Even a broken clock is right twice a day.|
|>How are you "dealing with QAnon?"||Q answered above|
|Are you still researching? What are those hard facts?||Q answered above|
|Do you have a comment on the claim: "QAnon has been more accurate in their predictions than the mainstream media in their reporting"||Q answered above|
|I’m sure you are bombarded with questions.||Epstein didn't kill himself.|
|I don’t expect a reply honestly.||Pizzagate is nonsense.|
|Is there anything you can speak on conspiracies?||Q answered above|
|Jeff Epstein, pizzagate, etc?||Q answered above|
|You mentioned pedo on another question.||Q answered above|
|Do you/Where do you draw a line between investigating someone’s past and publicly shaming them?||When their bullshit is ruining countless lives.|
|Hey remember when you were banned from SA for being a pervert?||For being a 16 year old edgelord making bad jokes and having questionable friends, you mean? Yeah, I do! I got a kick out of watching a few people get banned for supposedly being me in the years since. Shame about Lowtax.|
|Are you mad that your name is Aubrey?||It means King of the Elves, so no.|
|If you're anonymous why are you telling us?||Think of the name Anonymous as a bit of an ironic joke. 13 years is a long time ago, too.|
|Kinda defeats the purpose doesnt it jackass?||Q answered above|
|That's like live streaming an alcoholics anonymous meeting.||Q answered above|
|So you don’t believe there’s secret pedos pulling the strings in the background? What exactly is Qanon, I see that’s their conspiracy but what is their goal?||Great reset, rapture, end of the world type shit. Yeah, really.|
|How can you claim to have founded an organisation that literally just happened in of itself. This is so ridiculous?||yes it literally just happened around what i was doing|
|They took it out on me.||this|
|You are the moderator of a subreddit so therefore you are proof that he is the "founder" of anonymous? How is this stupid shit getting upvoted so heavily?||I suggest you read the piece I linked from The Atlantic and realize that many, many people were interviewed and the fact checking process took a significant amount of work.|
|Yes, I work in cyber security and my colleagues husband is a cyber security professional who works for the board of elections. We live in a swing state, and he is very tired.||Give them my condolonces|
|Are you secretly mr. Robot?||Tell Sam Esmail to return my calls.|
|What's up with those apps that give you money to see your grocery list? My friend does it and it seems so sketchy. Like there's gotta be a catch.||You are the product.|
|NGL that's something that really concerns me, other than not using Facebook etc, using something like DuckDuckgo instead of Google is there anything else someone can do?||I currently have pointed issues with DuckDuckGo as they use Bing's dataset heavily and Bing has seemingly deindexed every imageboard I can think of. 420chan's search traffic went down significantly and people thought we shut down.|
|Answer to Q above||Looking at you, Microsoft.|
|You’ve got to be shitting me. Are you serious? That’s amazing, I used to chat with you guys a ton in the late 2000s. Thanks for the great memories! I hope you both are happy and healthy!||Heh...|
|Thanks, you are the final push I wanted towards getting a pass manager. :)||Good.|
|There are so many people here who love you and support you! Wishing you the best on your journey to getting well. Glad to have you back in these crazy times.||Thank you.|
|Hey!||Hm... you raise a good point.|
|I'm attempting to hijack a close-to top level reply of yours, because I find it very suspicious that you are asked about and engaged on basically anything and everything down to pretty much your favorite color but almost no asker seems to mention cyuahnom. (I'm deliberately heavily misspelling it, gonna explain later, but I guess you already have a hunch about why.)||I'm gonna be at this on and off for some time so eventually those will be hit.|
|What I think is very likely is that a lot of supporters of that bs are latching onto this thread and downvoting anything and everything mentioning its name. The thread itself is massively downvoted but not killed, but any relevant discussion seems to be heavily suppressed into negative therefore hidden score. I have a suspicion that if I sort by controversial the questions will be there. I think their numbers are dwarfed by the general public, so there are likely 3 ways for them to keep on top of this:||Q answered above|
|1. refresh and search for keywords constantly then manually downvote||Q answered above|
|2. use bots to do exactly the above||Q answered above|
|3. dedicate a lot of their time to this||Q answered above|
|We can somewhat circumvent 1 and 2 by heavy misspelling, inserting special characters and similar techniques, and just the fact that they are so few and us the general public is so numerous might help us take care of 3.||Q answered above|
|What are your thoughts on the above? I feel like this is paramount for us to somehow solve, otherwise almost all of your AMA will be for naught.||Q answered above|
|p.s. Sure enough, I just checked sorting the comments in this thread by controversial, and a lot of questions are in there along with the chyu-supporters spewing their nonsense, just as they should be downvoted. Maybe all of us who see this could venture into sorting by controversial and try to lift out the legitimate questions from there? We heavily outnumber them. We are legion.||Q answered above|
|Edit 1: raised the controversial link comment limit from 200 to 1500, which is capped at 500 for people without reddit premium.||Q answered above|
|Edit 2: if you agree with the stuff I write above u/Kirtaner-420chan, perhaps you can edit your main post with a shoutout for people to check out that controversial-sorted link I have above? That might sort out the situation in no time and may end most of the off-topic shitfest.||Q answered above|
|Edit 3: I just went into controversial and looked for any legitimate q-and-a pairs and upvoted all of them. Mine alone does not do much to counteract those downvotes but if some of you also do it it just might be enough.||Q answered above|
|Edit 4: Also, remember, just because the comment shows a positive number (like 126), that doesn't mean it's not heavily downvoted. For example, it could have 1126 upvotes and 1000 downvotes, leaving the total to be still positive, yet far down enough that almost no one will ever see it.||Q answered above|
Accelerometers and Piezoelectric Transducers
submitted by goodinfosource to goodinfosource
Accelerometers, Piezoelectric Transducers and Actuators are exploited in the attacks to emit sound frequency and air pressure to impact the victim.
I want to talk about the technology aspect of the attacks. This information, for the average person, may seem like a bit much. It simply means that the information is not something that each of us use in our daily operations and would not normally need to know about it..... Unless you were attacked.
The attacks create ultrasonic emissions and signal which is the most illusive aspect for people to wrap their heads around. Just like when the automobile was invented, we all though it was a marvel of the future until we opened the hood and someone explained how it worked. This is the primary goal of these posts is to give clarity and understanding of the attack methods being used, not only in California, but throughout the world.
As was told to me by one of my attackers, "Technology has changed", and indeed it has.
We're going to look at some items that are already inside of the computers and devices that we all use. That being said, these items were not originally designed to do the things that I'm about to tell you, but that's an imperative aspect to understand, when analyzing an attack structure of this kind.
The information below is a bit extensive, but I want you to gain a simple understanding of the items effected in the attack. You don't have to be a technology specialist to get the fundamentals. Make sure to scan this entire document and don't skip any portion of what I'm documenting, even if you think you don't need to know it. Read everything that I post 2 or 3 times, to confirm it to memory.
Accelerometers:Accelerometers are sensors for measuring acceleration forces. They can be found embedded in many types of mobile devices, including tablet PCs, smartphones, and smartwatches. Some common uses of built-in accelerometers are automatic image stabilization, device orientation detection, and shake detection. In contrast to sensors like microphones and cameras, accelerometers are widely regarded as not privacy-intrusive. This sentiment is reflected in protection policies of current mobile operating systems, where third-party apps can access accelerometer data without requiring security permission. It has been shown in experiments, however, that seemingly innocuous sensors can be used as a side channel to infer highly sensitive information about people in their vicinity. Drawing from existing literature, we found that accelerometer data alone may be sufficient to obtain information about a device holder's location, activities, health condition, body features, gender, age, personality traits, and emotional state. Acceleration signals can even be used to uniquely identify a person based on biometric movement patterns and to reconstruct sequences of text entered into a device, including passwords. In the light of these possible inferences, we suggest that accelerometers should urgently be re-evaluated in terms of their privacy implications, along with corresponding adjustments to sensor protection mechanisms.
An accelerometer contains a physical mass placed on springs. When a device moves, the mass does too. The movement causes the capacitance—the ability to store charge—to change in the springs, which can be interpreted as movement. By producing vibrations through sound waves that moved that mass in a particular way, the group launched a series of attacks on the unsuspecting sensors.
The group first had to identify the resonance, or preferred frequency, of each accelerometer. At the resonance frequency, each sound wave reinforces the action of the previous one on the mass—leading to a much larger signal than you’d get at other frequencies. To find the resonance of the accelerometers, the team played tones at progressive frequencies from 2 kilohertz to 30 kilohertz, until they found a frequency where the accelerometer produced an outsized reaction.
Next, the team subjected the sensors to two types of attacks using sound waves at the resonant frequency. The first, called output biasing, exploits a feature of the low pass filter, a signal processing component that filters out high frequency interference. This technique can be used to slightly alter readings produced by the accelerometer for several seconds.
The second, called output control, takes advantage of the phone’s amplifier, which typically handles the raw signal even before it reaches the low pass filter. This method can be used to take control of the accelerometer indefinitely and produce false signals.
Piezoelectric Transducers, Sensors and Actuators:A transducer is a device which converts one form of energy into another. ... An actuator is a device that converts energy into motion. Therefore, it is a specific type of a transducer. When the output of the transducer is converted to a readable format, the transducer is called a sensor.
NFC - Near Field Communication:Near-field communication is a set of communication protocols for communication between two electronic devices over a distance of 4 cm or less. NFC offers a low-speed connection with simple setup that can be used to bootstrap more-capable wireless connections.
As the attacks emit this signal comprised of sound frequency and air pressure, it effects near by devices as we've spoken about. This emission, can occur in computers, mobile devices and televisions. Most networkable hardware.
If the hardware is not outfitted with the necessary components, such as transducers, other hardware such as hard drives can be effected to emit the oscillation and act as a Piezoelectric actuator or transducer.
Here’s how it works:One device translates a chunk of data, such as a block of text, into a sequence of sounds that can be decoded by another device. The receiving device processes the audio and converts it back to the original form.
The procedure is a bit like using Morse Code to transmit a message, but more complex. Using Morse Code, you can translate text into a series of audio pulses that someone else can decipher. It would take a long time to send a complex message that way, so instead of using a single tone, as Morse Code does, programmers use a range of audio frequencies to pack more information into less audio. Developers have to carefully select the frequencies, and tune their software to filter out noise so that applications can detect and interpret data signals even in noisy places, like concert venues or sports arenas. Companies like Lisnr, meanwhile, are working on compression techniques to push more data over sound waves more quickly.
Even using compression, sound waves can only carry a limited amount of data compared to a Wi-Fi connection. So today developers use the technology primarily to transmit small files, such as a digital ticket.
Google uses audio technology to pair phones with its Chromecast video devices. Using Bluetooth, your phone might not be able to distinguish the smart TV you’re watching from a TV in another room, or in a neighboring apartment, says Google software engineer Brian Duff. Using audio frequencies that won't pass through walls, Google can Google offers this audio technology as part of Nearby, a software kit that helps Android developers add proximity-based features to their apps. Using this technology, other hardware makers could use audio to pass an introductory message between your phone and another device, kicking off the digital "handshake" that pairs it with your phone before switching to a higher bandwidth radio-based technology to stream media.
Audio’s ubiquity allows users to connect different types of devices without worrying about which technologies those gadgets support. For example, video game maker Activision Blizzard uses sound-based technology developed by a UK company called Chirp to enable players of its game Skylanders Imaginators to move character data between a mobile app and a video game console like a PlayStation or Xbox. The data could be transferred via the internet, but developers wanted to use technology that is simple enough for children and works offline.
Data-over-sound is also useful in places where radio frequencies can't be used, for practical or legal reasons. For example, UK-based EDF Energy uses Chirp's technology in parts of its nuclear-power stations where radio transmissions are prohibited. "We are developing a way to connect mobile workers on tablet devices, reporting their progress through work, and also to connect sensors to make it easier for an engineer to monitor a plant when performing fault finding," says EDF Energy project manager Dave Stanley.
Security:It might not sound like a good idea to transmit something like payment credentials over the audio spectrum in, say, a coffee shop where anyone can theoretically listen in. But as with secure Wi-Fi and other cellular-data transmissions, the data can be encrypted to protect it.
Mick Grierson, a professor of computing at Goldsmiths, University of London, says that, done properly, audio could actually be a good way to send secure communications, because in many cases no one else will know that a message is being sent. He's worked on projects where data is hidden in another sound. In fact, Grierson imagines future applications for data-over-sound in emergency and military communications.
How does ultrasonic data transfer work?Google Nearby enables Android phone users who are in close proximity to each other to connect their devices and share data, such as documents or media. Google says: "To share and collaborate in apps, Nearby uses Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and inaudible sound to detect devices around your device. (Some people can hear a short buzz.)"
These inaudible sounds are ultrasonic beacons transmitting data that is then picked up by your phone.
To demonstrate this technology, I recorded such a beacon being broadcast in my lounge room while watching Netflix. In the below image you can see the audio ends around the 15kHz mark with the ultrasonic beacon beginning at 20kHz, the point at which average human hearing ends.
Since these ultrasonic sounds are the only relevant section of the data signal, it is necessary to remove the lower frequency audible signals (such as speech) that are also captured. This is done by using a high-pass filter. A high-pass filter extracts high frequencies to remain in the data and eliminates the lower frequencies.
This means, in theory, that while the device could be recording sound, it isn't keeping the parts of the recording that might include conversation.
Different filters process signals in different ways. While filters constructed from basic electrical components do not require any storage of the signal, digital software filters require the signal to be stored temporarily.
Is this kind of recording legal?A listening device is precisely defined as: "a device capable of being used to listen to or record a private conversation or words spoken to or by any person in private conversation (…) but does not include a device being used to assist a person with impaired hearing to hear sounds ordinarily audible to the human ear."
There is no exemption provided for recording sounds and then removing the audible portion.
It is generally unlawful "to overhear, record, monitor or listen to a private conversation" unless you have the express permission of all parties involved. Since audio is being recorded using a standard microphone in the course of an ultrasonic data transfer, the full audio spectrum – including any conversation occurring – is being sampled at the same time.
The type of filter used is therefore critical. If a digital filter is being used to extract the ultrasonic data, the temporary storage of the full audio spectrum could be considered a recording. And that requires consent.
Google gives users the chance to opt-out the first time notifications are made using the Nearby service. However, this could only be construed as consent for the phone owner, not all parties to a possible conversation being recorded in private. Also, by the time the notification happens, the recording has already occurred.
What about location tracking?Advertisers can use ultrasonic signals that speak to your mobile phone to establish where you are within a store. They can also correlate this data with other advertising metadata easily obtained from cookies to track your broader movements.
This further complicates matters regarding their legality.
A tracking device is explicitly defined as: "a device capable of being used to determine the geographical location of a person, vehicle or thing and any associated equipment."
Since it is generally illegal to track someone without their consent – implied or otherwise – if an advertiser is using an app combined with an ultrasonic beacon to track you and you are unaware that they are doing so, they could be breaking the law.
Google says the Nearby protocol is battery-intensive due to the use of Bluetooth and WiFi. As such "the user must provide consent for Nearby to utilize the required device resources". It says nothing about the legality of needing permission to record sound or track users.
Google does warn that the Nearby service is a one-way communication channel with your phone never communicating directly to a Nearby service on its online support page.
But since users are required to opt-out of the service, it's hard to argue that they have given informed consent.
What can I to protect my privacy?Users need to be aware of the potential to be tracked from ultrasonic beacons such as Google's Nearby service and Apple's iBeacon.
Since this is a built-in feature of Google's Pixel phone and other Android phones, users need to have informed consent regarding the Nearby service and the dangers of revealing data about themselves. Merely blocking app permissions which request to use your phone's microphone will not be enough.
One research group has released a patch that proposes to modify the permission request on phones requiring apps to state when they want access to your microphone to track inaudible signals individually. This doesn't solve the built-in problem of Google's API though.
Google and other mobile phone companies should do more to ensure they are adequately gaining informed consent from users to ensure they do not fall foul of the law.
High Fidelity:On top of this ability to share unlimited information in real time and in a secure and/or secret manner you also have to consider the fidelity of that information. Graphic displays and image-processing software today can produce results that are indistinguishable from reality in all but the most rigorous laboratory testing. Using a battery of sophisticated sensor techniques from light sensors and infrared sensors to ultrasounds and x-rays, we can reproduce materials with amazing accuracy. An individual’s voice can be captured, analyzed, and sequenced such that you can create audio files that are perfect in every detail.
In short, attackers can make “you” say anything they want. They even have current technologies that can model human behavior and mannerisms. For example, Cisco Systems has software that can monitor the conversations between a call center operator and a customer and indicate whether the customer is angry, frustrated, or elated. We can produce computer avatars that display human emotion in terms of their body language, facial expressions, and voice intonation.
Of course, 3D is commonplace today, and with the new 4K (and soon-to-be-released 8K) ultra-high-definition TVs and display with super-vivid Organic Light Emitting Diode, our ability to project highly detailed, highly realistic images is incredible. Next time you see one of these devices, look closely into the picture, and you may just see some information hidden deep within. For a sense of how imaging technology today can store a lot of information, take a look at the Gigapan high resolution panoramic images (www.gigaspan.com). For less than $1,000, you could create an image that allows you to read the headlines of someone reading a newspaper on the steps of the U.S. Capitol Building from the Lincoln Memorial. In short, it is getting harder and harder to tell what is real and what is computer-generated.
Make sure to read about: SurfingAttack: Implementation through HyperGame Model of Attack