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[USA-NY][H]4 Laptops; Alienware m17x R1 (x2), AW m14x R1, HP Envy 17. ADATA SU800 2TB 2.5" SSD, Blue Modded PS Vita with SD2VITA, Various gaming items, collectibles, PC and Laptop Parts. [W]PayPal
Please let me know if you have any questions!
All prices negotiable AND slashed from the last sale thread- no extreme lowballs! Prices are SHIPPED within continental US (with some exceptions). In that case, PM me your zip. Orders under $15 will have a $3 shipping charge. Will do solid bundle deals! Local gets a discount appropriate for subtraction of shipping.
I do professional PC, laptop, and game repair part time. Know that the items you receive have been services with capable and caring hands. I put a lot of time into some of these items and care about the quality of my work.
Local is 14226 (Buffalo, NY area).
Obviously payment is made by PayPal goods and services.
Items priced at $1 are considered CLOSE OUT. You can request those for free with your order within reason (like… Don’t request a bunch of free stuff if you bought $13 total).
I'm also donating 10% of all funds received to the International Anti-Poaching Foundation :D (+$70 donation sent last thread!)
Timestamps and items: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1AKLWxpyvxlU7q4B_oUCs5N8Xs7eyyDRH?usp=sharing
This is a huge list that took me some time, so... please pardon my dust :D
This list will be left up for quite a while, items will slowly make their way to eBay or other market places after a couple weeks.
Please make sure you want the items you pay for! PayPal no longer refunds the seller fees when a seller issues a refund. If you request to cancel after paying, but before shipping, I end up eating the seller fee. PayPal Policy
The default refund period is 180 days from the transaction date. If you refund a payment for goods or services, there are no fees to process the refund, but the fees you originally paid as the seller are not returned to you. The amount of the refunded payment will be deducted from your PayPal account.
|ADATA SU800 2TB 2.5” SSD||$180||SSD was used briefly as a game drive, but I no longer have room for a 2.5” in my itty bitty SFF build. Barely used. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1Flxj4RZvt4DMaPMRVai-8cgTSxmkg3aI?usp=sharing|
|Startech.Com 2 Port Flush Mount ExpressCard 54mm SuperSpeed USB 3.0||$30||ECUSB3S254F, works perfect!|
|$250 without storage|
|Blue PS Vita 1000 with CFW||$200||Latest custom firmware installed. Comes with 8gb PS Vita Memory Card, 16gb MicroSD with SD2Vita adapter in game cart slot. System is essentially new - the protecting plastic is still on the brand new OLED screen and rear touchpad. Original parts taken from a Japanese PS Vita with a broken screen. Does not have a charger, but will come fully charged (I only have one for my personal vita).|
|Need For Speed Most Wanted Game||$10||Game only, no case. A really good Vita racing game!|
|Game Card Case||$1||I’ll include this free with NFS or the Vita|
|Corsair Scimitar PRO Wired Optical Gaming/MOBA/MMO Mouse with RGB Lighting - Yellow||$45||Excellent condition mouse! So many buttons and colors! I use a wireless set up, so no more need for this trusty mouse. Excellent condition.|
|Lego Dimensions Fantastic Beasts Story Level Pack||$15||New/Never Opened|
|PC Classic: Atomic Bomberman CD||$1||Classic game CD, mid 90s game, basically a collectors item.|
|Dreamcast GameShark CDX with Required Memory Adapter||$15||Dreamcast cheats and network enabler!|
|Dreamcast Web browser (Orange)||$1||I’m sure this is very useful for someone?|
|Saturn Virtua Cop||$5|
|Saturn Bootleg Sampler||$3|
|PSX Chrono Cross Manual||$3||Green label|
|Genesis Madden 94 Manual||$1||1994 GOTY|
|Genesis Sonic 3 Manual||$2|
|PS3 Eye Cameras||$5||(2 Available) I used these to set up PSmoveservice and use the PSVR with my PC, which works surprisingly well! Moved on to a different VR set up.|
|PS2/PS3 Composite Cable||$3|
|PS2/PS3 Component Cable||$5|
|Replacement PS3 Controller Battery with charging cable||$5||New in box/never used. Purchased a few months ago while refurbing a bunch of controllers.|
|PS Gold Headset Faceplates||$1||Minor wear, maybe paint these and customize your headset?|
|PS4 That’s You!||$2||New/Sealed|
|PS3 Sports Champions||$1||In case, good condition|
|PS3 Vanquish||$3||Generic Gamestop Case|
|Will require $5 shipping charge.|
|Wii System Stand||$1||has slots for 2 game cases, sd cards, and console|
|Plugs into the mini usb port, only 1 attachment included, works great.|
|Nintendo DS/3DS Pink Card Case||$1||Holds games fine, but ‘pages’ aren’t hinged in well.|
|Nintendo DS/3DS Blue Card Case||$1||Holds games fine, but ‘pages’ aren’t hinged in well.|
|3DS Skylanders Swap Force||$1||Game works great!|
|3DS BIT.TRIP SAGA||$8||awesome game!|
|DS Flower Sun and Rain||$50||Game only, RARE!|
|DS Lego Indiana Jones||$1||Game only!|
|Wii Fantasy Aquarium World||$1||Game only!|
|Xbox One IR Receiver Extension||$1||Plugs in to a jack in the back of the Xbox One, useful for if your TV remote or kinect can’t send IR to your xbox due to obstructions.|
|Xbox 360 Basic Chat Headset||$1||2.5mm jack headset|
|Xbox 360 Audio Adapter||$1||channels W audio cables into a 3.5mm audio jack|
|Xbox 360 Dead Space 3||$2||Both disks, works on Xbox One and Series S/X as well.|
|Xbox 360 Chromehounds||$2||ROBOTS!|
|Xbox 360 Hail to the Chimp||$2||a lot of the people who made Halo Combat Evolved worked on this abomination|
|Xbox Halo Combat Evolved (with case)||$4||The game the guys who made Hail to the Chimp made before their magnum opus|
|Xbox Halo Combat Evolved (no case)||$2||John kills aliens and falls in love with a purple hologram|
|Xbox Phantom Dust (no case)||$5||For the love of god please play this game. Its free on the Windows store and Xbox One. After you enjoy that, you’ll probably buy this because|
|Xbox Headset Adapter||$1||Great for smack talking 16 year olds (who are now in their 30s) after losing by 30 in team slayer.|
|2 Day Xbox Live Gold||$XX||I don’t even know if this works so if you order other stuff just ask.|
|Gears of War Anya Code||$XX||Play as a girl in the game about mutated steroid bois|
|Switch Cases||$2 (each)||Nintendo Labo Toy-Con 1-4|
|PS4 Case||$1||Sniper Elite III|
|PC Cases||$1||Anthem, Star Wards Jedi Fallen Order, Titanfall 2, Battlefield 4|
|The Evil Within Limited Edition (PC)||$2||Cool case for scary time|
|AMD Wraith Stealth CPU Cooler||$10||Brand new, never used, still has original unused thermal paste on it. Never removed from box, was purchased with an R5 3600.|
|USB 3.1 Gen 2 PCIe Card (2x USB-C Ports)||$30||The item page on amazon is gone, but it is basically this: https://www.amazon.com/FebSmart-10-9-x10-10-x-10-15-x-Build-Self-Powered-FS-C2-Pro/dp/B089YN57TD/ Essentially never used. Was in my PC and had a USB-C to it to transfer photos from my phone 1 time in 6 months. Sold my PC and still have this in original box.|
|Memory Stick Adapters||$1||3x MicroSDHC to SDHC, 1x Pro Duo to Memory Stick. Just request these if you need these with your order|
|Micron 2GB PC4-19200 DDR4-2400MHz non-ECC Unbuffered CL17 260-Pin SoDimm 1.2V Single Rank Memory Module||$5||MTA4ATF25664HZ-2G3B1 Working pull from... something I worked on within the last 6 months. An HP?|
|Samsung 2GB 1333Mhz PC3-10600S DDR3-1333||$5||M471B5773DH0-CH9, 204-Pin SODIMM Laptop Memory Ram, Working pull from some laptop I worked on :P|
|DVD/CD Drive to Hard Drive Caddy||$5||Remove your CD/DVD drive and replace it with another hard drive!|
|Dell IR Remote||$1||Stores in express card slot. I don't really know what this is for, I assume Windows Media Center but I never used it.|
|Wireless MPCIe WiFi Card 590020-001||$1||Old wifi card that was upgraded for a previous maintenance job. Just request with your order for free or buy it for some reason.|
|Broadcom BCM94312HMG MPCIe WiFi Card||$1||Old wifi card that was upgraded for a previous maintenance job. Just request with your order for free or buy it for some reason.|
|Dell MPCIe WiFi Card E2K112BNH||$1||Old wifi card that was upgraded for a previous maintenance job. Just request with your order for free or buy it for some reason.|
|Anatel MPCIe Bluetooth Card||$1||Old bluetooth card that was upgraded for a previous maintenance job. Just request with your order for free or buy it for some reason.|
|Dell 300Mbps Wireless ABGN Half MINI PCI-E WIFI Network Card||$2||42018217-00, Working pull from a Dell/Alienware|
|Dell TS-T633 DVD Writer Optical Drive 2KDGC||$10|
|Alienware M17 Optical Drive Connector and Ribbon Cable||$4||(ODD Cable and tray) - W850DI|
|Alienware M17x R2 CPU Heatsink||$6||(2 Available) THA01 RVXVK|
|Alienware M17x Left Side GPU Heatsink||$20||No retention clips on screws, all screws included.|
|Alienware M17x Right Side GPU Heatsink||$20||(2 Available) Perfect condition.|
|Alienware M17x LEFT-side Graphics Cooling Fan||$5||F603N|
|Alienware M17x RIGHT-side Graphics Cooling Fan||$8||F605N|
|Alienware m17x R2 Palmrest Sub Assembly (Magnesium Plate)||$11||3MJ0K|
|Alienware M17x Internal L & R Speaker Set||$4||G242N, these come with the bottom base assembly or purchased separately|
|Alienware m17x HDD0 Caddy||$10||Screws included for caddy, standard 2.5” SSD/HDD screws not included.|
|Alienware m17x HDD1 Caddy and Interposer||$20||Y248M (Caddy) TRDD2 (Interposer), Will come with generic screws|
|Alienware M17x Daughterboard||$10||Audio Ports / USB / ExpressCard Slot IO Circuit Board - F421N, works with m17x R1 or R2|
|Alienware M17x Center Control Power Button Cover Hinge Cover||$5||W779M - It is the power button, caps/num indicator, etc.|
|Alienware M17x Palmrest Touchpad Mouse Buttons Assembly||$15||Very good condition Y243M|
|Alienware M17x CPU Cooling Fan||$5||U012M - Loud fan|
|CMOS RTC Battery: Alienware M17X||$5||Working, 3 available.|
|Alienware M17x Laptop Bottom Base Cover Assembly||$15||RED - J181N, with speakers and IR board|
|nVidia GTX 240m 1GB MXM 3.0a||$15||Working pull from an m15x|
|Clevo AMD MXM GPU Bracket||$30||Make sure you have the right GPU screws and heatsink, might be able to use it for the 8970m in a m17x r2 upgrade.|
|Alienware m17x/m15x DVD/CD Drive to Hard Drive Caddy||$6||Remove your CD/DVD drive and replace it with another hard drive! Allows for up to 3 total 2.5" drives in the m17x or 2 in the m15x.|
|Alienware M15x 15.6" FHD LCD Screen||$10||SCRATCHES ON EXTERIOR - SEE PICS - FUNCTIONS FINE!, LP156WF1 H162K PV5HJ Bezel|
|Alienware M17x 17" 1920x1200 CCFL LCD Screen||$10||SCRATCHES ON EXTERIOR - CRACKED LCD (shows image on ⅓ of screen) - Backlight works. Webcam and wifi cables included, LP156WF1 H162K PV5HJ Bezel|
|Alienware m17x RED LCD Back Cover Lid Panel||$5||J227N Paint has been rubbed off from edges over the years - would be excellent for a DIY project to be repainted. No deep scratches.|
|Alienware M17x Palmrest Touchpad Mouse Buttons Assembly||$1||Y243M - Motherboard connector missing plastic holder, can be taped to fit. Left mouse button doesn’t move, but works. Front panel by speakers needs glue.|
|Intel Core2Quad QX9300 CPU||$30||Processor pulled from an m17x R1. It was working when pulled, but in a different motherboard did not work. Can not guarantee function - AS IS.|
|m14x English/US Keyboard||$5||Missing 2 keys, WASD not working. Can definitely be used to replace keys on your own keyboard. Ebay sellers are selling individual keys for over $5 each!|
|Alienware m17x BLACK LCD Back Cover Lid Panel||$5||J226N, may need some super glue on the assembly where it meets the grey back plate, easy fix and honestly I could do it but would not want to state it to be in better condition than it is. Has various scratches as well. See pics.|
|Alienware M17x / M17xR2 Bottom Access Panel Door||$5||C395N, has gashes on panel, see pics.|
|TaoTronics PC Sound Bar Wired Computer Speaker||$15||Model: TT-SK018 https://www.taotronics.com/products/tt-sk018-sound-bar|
|Memory Stick Adapters||$1||3x MicroSDHC to SDHC, 1x Pro Duo to Memory Stick. Request these free with your order.|
|Verizon MI424WR Rev. I FIOS Modem||$5||I have my own router, so I didn't need this.|
|Verizon MI424-WR Rev. F FIOS Modem||$5||I have my own router, so I didn't need this.|
|FreedomPOP Wireless Modem||$1||2 Available - I don’t know much about these, I used them with a free freedom pop sim for wireless internet for a short time. Check pictures.|
|Star Wars Sphero Forceband||$5||Used to control the rolling BB-8 thing by Sphero. https://www.amazon.com/Sphero-AFB01USA-Star-Wars-Force/dp/B01KX211JI|
|Rather than engaging in illegal animal fights at planet fitness, earn your badges by buying the full set|
|Digimon Cards||$XX||See pics for available cards. Angewoman is there so SIDE EYE EMOJI|
|Legacy of the Void - Rare!|
|Bumblebee Movie mini fig||$1||Lil fella was given to me when I went to see Bumblebee. In the wrapper still. I’ll throw him in your order if you reaaaaaly want it.|
|Verizon MI424-WR Rev. F FIOS Modem||$5||I have my own router, so I didn't need this.|
|Avatar The Last Airbender Pin||$1||he looks mad.|
|4001AD Comic||$1||I own this comic and I’ve never heard of it|
|Mast Effect Omni Blade Cosplay Toy||$5||Shepherd. (this toy is better than ME:Andromeda)|
|Finding Dory Toys||$1||You’re probably buying some stuff for yourself from me, so I’ll throw these in for your loved ones. However, might have an upgraded shipping cost (max $5).|
|CW Arrow Figures||$40||Green Arrow Season 2 design, The Flash and Reverse Flash Season 1 design, multiple accessories. Man those shows were pretty good until they were very bad.|
SAG's plant lighting guide linked together
Please note that I no longer help people design/build custom LED grow lights in PM because it can take way too much time with too many people asking questions. I'll answer quick specific questions in PM on theory like how a particular light sensitive protein works if I know the answer but I'm not going to look up heat sinks and LED drivers for you. I will answer these build questions publicly on /SpaceBuckets, however. Thank you for understanding!
This guide is not well organized but I'm not being compensated for this and I tend to just throw stuff on here.
As a quick note, there is no such thing as "300 PAR", as an example, for light intensity. PAR is a definition of what we are measuring, not a unit of measurement (the first two charts in that link are for isolated pigments in a solvent and for green algae, not how plants actually respond to light wavelength). "300 PAR" would literally be like saying "300 water" and makes as much sense. If would be a PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) of "300 µmol/m2/sec" or "300 micromoles per square meter per second" for light and may be 300 liters of water flowing per minute in the water example. In scientific literature it will always be "300 µmol/m2/sec" or "300 µmol m-2 s-1" which is the same thing. I assume I'm dealing with someone who does not really understand the subject matter when I see "300 PAR". More on this below.
-Using a lux meter as a plant light meter (only use a lux meter with a white light source)
-Core Concepts in Horticulture Lighting Theory
-Bridgelux phosphor guide (I analyze and give lux to PPFD conversions values for Bridgelux LEDs)
-A strong warning about removing the domes from LED light bulbs by an actual electrician
-Line voltage COBs and electrical safety
-Safety notes on low cost LED COB grow lights
-Evaluation of tiny grow lights A look at some of the tiniest grow lights and how some are quite dangerous. Work in progress.
-Bruce Bugbee of Utah State has a great video on cannabis lighting
-Bruce Bugbee YouTube channel You will know all this information if you want to be a lighting expert.
-Apogee Instruments Videos You need to know everything in these videos to be a lighting and environmental expert.
-GrowMau5 YouTube channel The only non-scientist worth viewing on YouTube in my opinion pertaining to lighting theory and building LED grow lights. Most YouTube vids on plant lighting are fairly unscientific with misinformation to various degrees and poor grow testing practices like making broad claims off of a tiny population number to include claims based on a sample size of one.
Let me start by saying I simply loath scammers making faulty claims about their lights. The worst I've seen are lights by LEDtonics who is also active on Reddit.
When you are selling a low end grow light for twice the price per watt as other low end Chinese grow lights and claiming, or so much as alluding to, that they can provide good growth at 12 watts per square foot is making a non-sense claim (claiming a 50 watt Chinese grow light is good for a 2x2 grow area is bogus for cannabis- you will end up with weak and lanky plants).
A 50 watt LED grow light is not a "600W" light and that is a fraudulent claim. No one else is claiming 50 watts is a 600 watt equivalent light except for scammers (they are basically claiming a 50 watt LED light can perform as well as a 600 watt high pressure sodium light). This is true today and was true over 10 years ago when I first started publicly calling these types of scams out in publications like Maximum Grow Magazine. Don't do business with deceptive people no matter how many pretty charts they have. A quality light like by HLG will put out over two times the light per price as will many cheaper Chinese quantum boards that use high quality Samsung LEDs (good luck with a warranty from lights bought off of AliExpress, though). The quality of the LEDs makes all the difference as does the LED driver (Mean Well LED drivers are world class).
Most cheap Chinese grow lights that claim to be equivalent to a 600 watt light actually put out more light than that LEDtonic light, despite their claim, because most that make that claim are above 100 watts of LEDs rather than 50 watts using the same types of low end LEDs.
This is why I call LEDtonic in particular the worst deal in grow lights.
Currently, for low end Chinese grow light you want about 50 watts per square foot for robust flowering of cannabis. For high end LEDs (Samsung, Cree, Osram etc) this is about 30 watts per square foot. Anyone telling you differently is likely trying to sell you something.
Also, there is no "magic" lighting spectrum for growing plants and even different cultivars of the same plant type can react differently to light. Sweet basil, purple basil, and lettuce leaf basil can all react differently to light, for example. But generally speaking light quantity (the amount of light) is much more important than light quality (the specific spectrum).
This is not to say that lighting spectrum plays no role in plants but many of the benefits has to do with light sensitive protein manipulation (photomorphogenesis) rather than photosynthesis with results such as making red variety of lettuce even more red or trying to boost trichomes in cannabis. There are research companies that do light profile plants by wavelength and most of this information is proprietary.
Down below is a sample of grow light makers that have integrity by selling quality lights using high end LEDs and LED drivers. Never buy a grow light that is advertised at less than 2.0 μmol/joule which will be explained. Buying a $50 UFO style LED grow light for a space bucket grow is an exception.
TL;DR what you were likely taught about green light was wrong and here's why.
Here is a spectral reflectivity profile of a high nitrogen marijuana leaf (Jack Herer). About 90% of the green light is being absorbed (it's on an 18% reflective gray card used in photography) although many plants may be closer to 80% absorption. Plants can use green light and at higher lighting levels green is more photosynthetically efficient than red (pdf file). All the latest research and my own experiments back this claim.
This is because the top layer of chloroplasts that contains chlorophyll becomes saturated while green can penetrate deeper in to leaf tissue (sieve effect) and reflected around until absorbed by another chloroplast containing chlorophyll (detour effect) or by an accessory pigment. This efficiency can be measure through chlorophyll fluorescence or a gas exchange chamber.
Green light used alone tends to cause a lot of elongation (stretching). High pressure sodium lights have a lot of green/yellow/amber light which is why they do so well and are still the standard in large scale horticulture lighting. Catch 22- green/yellow/amber LEDs all have a relatively low electrical efficiency compared to blue/red.
More information that postulates why plants are green can be found here. (pdf)
Ours eyes have a combined sensitivity curve where the peak of our sensitivity is also were the peak reflectivity is going to be for a green plant. (The individual sensitivity of our 3 color sensitive cone cells in our eyes is this).
So it's true plants do reflect more green light than red or blue, but the way we perceive light is naturally much higher biased for green light (555nm sensitivity peak which is the same as a green plant's reflectivity peak). This fact means that less electrically efficient green LEDs can still be used in red/green/blue LEDs and we wouldn't perceive the difference. Most green LEDs are about 525nm or so which is outside the peak reflectivity of a green plant but because of the electrical inefficiency of green LEDs relative to red and blue LEDs, white LEDs that have a large green component would be typically used instead (the vast majority of white LEDs are actually a blue LEDs with a phosphor). One problem with red/green/blue LEDs for general illumination is color shadowing and very low CRI (color rendering index) which is why white LEDs are used instead.
It should be noted that the maximum absorption for chlorophyll in leaves in vivo (in a living plant) is 675-680nm and not 660nm as often cited. This can be seen in this spectrometer shot of a chlorotic (yellow) leaf as a dip in the 675-680nm range from small amounts of chlorophyll left over. The blue absorption seen are carotenoids which have perhaps a 30-70% efficiency at transferring the absorbed light energy to a photosynthetic reaction center through chlorophyll A. Chlorophyll B is an accessory pigment and higher land plants do not contain chlorophyll C-F. Depending on the plant, there may be 3-7 chlorophyll A molecules for every chlorophyll B molecule but mostly around a 3:1 ratio.
Fun fact! Older plants leaves are not as photosynthetically efficient as newer plant leaves. This has been known about for well over 50 years now.
LED grow light manufacturers/resellers often use the incorrect chlorophyll dissolved in a solvent charts or algae charts to back their claims that specific wavelengths are needed for photosynthesis. The correct chart is found here in chart C (pdf file from LiCor- the scientific standard in plant light meters and photosynthesis measurement test gear). This is the McCree(1972) curve based on an average of 22 different plants which shows 550nm green is more efficient than 450nm blue (blue gets absorbed by some other pigments in addition to chlorophyll) and is the chart used in plant photobiology. (For botany types the McCree curve is most valid at 15-150 umol/m2/sec of light- at low lighting levels red light is used for best possible photosynthesis rate but shifts more towards green at higher lighting levels as per Terashima et al 2009 already linked to).
If you find a chart with a deep dip in the green area then it's for some sort of algae or bacteria, not green terrestrial plants. If you find a chart with a bunch of chlorophyll and other pigment peaks then it's only valid as an extract in vitro (in the test tube or cuvette) and not in vivo (the living leaf itself). The pigment peaks can differ depending on the solvent used and the charts do not tell how much there is of a particular pigment so take them with a grain of salt. They are only valid for the particular set up used.
As a warning the Wikipedia page on photosynthetically active radiation uses these incorrect charts.
Most biology text books get the above paragraphs wrong by not showing the McCree curve while also not articulating how our eyes perceive different colors/wavelengths of light. This is a well known problem with botanists who specialize in plant lighting and causes a lot of confusion and misconceptions. Even Botany for Dummies gets it wrong which is otherwise a very good book.
The McCree curve is not the final say in lighting, though, since it only covers monochromatic light at lower lighting levels using the single leaf model for short periods and only for photosynthesis, not photomorphogenesis.
Don't buy a grow light that is rated under 2 μmol/joule! Space Buckets should be the only exception to this.
The gold standard for a pro grow light is the μmol/joule rating (μmol/J for brevity, Joule is a unit of energy equal to one watt of power for one second). This means how much light does this light give off per energy by the grow light consumed. Joules is not the same as watts and this is one way I can tell if someone really understands theory.
I typically write "μmol" as "umol" or "uMol" when typing away.
What a "uMol" is will be explained later (but it is a micro mole, one millionth of a mole or 6.02x1017 photons in this case). One can also take the PPF (photosynthetic photon flux) of the light fixture in umol/sec of light output and divide by total watts input to the light to derive the umol/joule rating. Don't get hung up if you don't understand this! My article on core concepts of plant lighting does get in to detail.
So, the higher umol/joule rating the better. You get what you pay for but the ROI (return on investment) for pro uses definitely is in favor for the top end lights particularly at higher electricity costs. This was academically demonstrated in the past in a paper below where the HydroGrowLED Sol 9 came in last place at 0.9 umol/joule which should be expected when very cheap LED are being used.
Never buy an LED grow light for professional use unless the light manufacturer is willing to give this uMol/joule number. I can not emphasize this enough. Very low end LED lights like the UFO LED and other cheap lights are also around a 0.9 umol/joule rating (21dec2018 edit: they are now more efficient at around 1.2-1.3 umol/joule) which is why they and similar lights should only be used for hobby purposes. Most also don't have reflectors or lenses to optimize LED lighting. But for "Space Buckets" they should be your choice because the are better than compact fluorescent bulbs at least. DIY LED lighting can match professional lighting in performance.
(edit October 2019: You can buy quantum boards geared towards the hobby market with Samsung LEDs that get >2.5 umol/joule that use high quality Mean Well drivers for under $100. Don't buy cheap Chinese grow lights except perhaps for space buckets- they will not last as long and being more inefficient will generate a lot more heat.)
The quality LED grow light manufacturer will also be able to name the LED brand used. If not then don't buy for commercial/professional purposes. EpiLED and Epistar are not quality name brand LEDs. In some cases Bridgelux LED chips may be bought to make LEDs. Bridgelux is of high quality on rheir LED COBs, like the Vero 18 and the Vero 29, but the LED chips can also be used in some lower quality products. Check to see if EpiLED or EpiStar LEDs are also being used as a red flag.
Current ASABE recommendation is at least 1.9 uMol/Joule. As far as I know, these are LED grow lights that would be ASABE recommended that are also US based (I'm not familiar with European LED grow lights). Most all other LED grow lights I've found online would not meet this basic criteria. For commercial use with an electrical inspector you'll want lights that are UL, ETL and/or CSA listed or marked in US/Canada. CE is not acceptable alone for the US as far as I know.
A sample of quality lights in no particular order:
- Hyperion Grow Lights 3.0-3.5 umol/joule red/blue "blurple" lights
- Philips LED at up to 2.7 uMol/joule. They are also more expensive.
- Fluence up to 2.7 uMol/joule. They have a very ideal form factor and have good market penetration. Formerly known as BML.
- BiosLighting at >2.1uMol/joule. Like the lights above they don't need fan cooling. White/red.
- NextLight LED up to 2.2 uMol/joule. White LEDs that are spaced out perfectly for a tent. I would not use these lights without a tent.
- HLG "quantum board" lights at 2.2-2.5 uMol/joule. They use high quality Samsung LEDs.
- Timber Grow Lights is right around 2.3 uMol/joule and using top end, name brand COBs for grow lights.
- Chil LED Grow Lights at 2.4-2.5 uMol/joule. I believe they do custom work. They offer lights that can be passively cooled, air cooled, and/or water cooled.
- California Lighting Works at 2.2 uMol/joule. Commercial lights.
- Spectrum King at 2.1-2.2 uMol/joule. Commercial lights.
- Atreum Lighting at 2.4 uMol/joule. These are more high end hobby lights.
Fluorescent to include induction lighting. 0.9-1.2 uMol/joule range. Just no unless for seedlings and the like. Obsolete. T-5 fluorescent tubes should be consider obsolete in 2020.
Using a cheap lux meter as a plant light meter Read this first. THIS ONLY APPLIES TO WHITE LIGHT SOURCES. With color or white/color combos a quantum PAR meter must be used. Since your lux meter in your phone is not cosine correct it should not be used as a plant light meter- your results are going to be off. The white plastic dome or white piece of plastic on a light meter is for cosine correction.
Color temperature basics (At the end of the day color temperature is the red to blue ratio of a white light source.)
Safety and lighting types
Photomorphogenesis part 1
Photomorphogenesis part 2
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 1: Heat
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 2: Beam Angle
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 3: Color and White LEDs
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 4: Build your first grow light
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 5: Working with 100 watt LEDs
LEDs and LED Grow Lights Part 6: Wiring up a Mean Well power supply
FAQ: the reason that LEDs are not more efficient and lose efficiency as more current is put through them has to do with Auger recombination otherwise known as the Auger effect or "droop". As of October 2019, top end blue LEDs can hit over 70% efficiency.
AN30: Thermal management
AN31: Handling and assembling arrays
AN32: Electrical drive considerations
AN36: Optical considerations
ScubaSteve141414 has STL files for 3D printer 120mm fan adapter
1st bucket with commercial off the shelf lights
46 watt green LED and a pole bean in a Space Bucket
bosslines does a very interesting no solder LED Space Bucket
SpaceBucketFu has a nice short photo write up on making lights for a tote
arise420 has an interesting screw on design
arise420 pulling off 3.2oz in a bucket
ekrof has a very safe LED bulb design here (Ekrof created the spacebuckets subreddit and has been influential in hobby growing)
These papers seem solid to me but one must be aware that quite a few peer reviewed research papers can not have their results duplicated. This is a well known problem in academia. There is a culture of publish or perish issue and up to 90% of white papers, depending on the field, are never cited meaning they have basically no scientific impact.
- David Kramer of MSU has done a lot of photosynthesis research and has a low cost product out on measuring photosynthesis rates.
- Roberto Lopez of Purdue has done extensive plant lighting work.
- Bruce Bugbee of Utah State has done pioneering work on photosynthesis and created a company called Apogee Instruments
- Ichiro Terashima of The U of Tokyo has been very influential in photosynthesis research.
Paper analyzing the cost benefit of LED horticultural lighting You get what you pay for.
The Guiding Force of Photons (pdf file) is a great read as a summary of the latest research in light sensitive proteins and photosynthesis.
Growing under 24 hour lighting. This is a meta-study from the Russian Academy of Sciences
Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions (pdf file) Note, this is done on a Mexican sativa, not an indica. This information conflicts with other published information on photosynthesis and lighting levels but is a reliable source. Brought to you by the US Government and the U of Mississippi.
The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp Canadian study on cannabis.
Photosynthetic light harvesting: excitons and coherence Think you truly understand photosynthesis? Read this. (note- a lot of this information is dealing with bacteria and chlorophyll dissolved in a solvent. Different solvents can give different chlorophyll absorption peaks and in the real world the McCree curve still holds at 50 umol/m2/sec of photon flux density for monochromatic light)
Photosynthetic Quantum Yield Dynamics: From Photosystems to Leaves
Cost and Color of Photosynthesis is another paper that explains why most higher land plants are green from an evolutionary standpoint.
Why are higher plants green? Evolution of the higher plant photosynthetic pigment complement
Green Light Drives Leaf Photosynthesis More Efficiently than Red Light in Strong White light: Revisiting the Enigmatic Question of Why Leaves are Green This is the best paper I've read on photosynthesis.
When there is too much light
A paper on why DLI is important with charts for different plants
Cree announces 300 lumen per watt white LEDs It will be a 3-4 years before these hit the market. (edit 2019- not!)
Don't dox SAG (note: fuck all doxers)
Safety notes on low cost LED COB grow lights
Basic Plant Faq V0.1
Electrical safety tips Work with line voltage at your own risk!
An in depth discussion on multimeters. This is a really good read that goes beyond the primer.
How to build a light meter part 1
Small light reflector comparison
Selective Light Training Primer Some of my original research on volumetric plant optimization. Nice for vertical gardens.
An old 3,000 word essay published in Maximum Yield Magazine in 2008. A mistake in my essay itself was stating that very little light energy is converted to matter (technically true) but would have been much better worded if I wrote that most of the light energy absorbed by a plant is not converted in to chemical energy (mainly starches).
AMA I did on /SpaceBuckets with some good LED lighting information.
Space Bucket parts can be found through Ekrof's website.
Heat Sink USA is where to get heat sinks if not buying off Ebay or making your own.
eMachineShop is where I have small mechanical parts made. Free CAD software can export .STL 3D printer files.
makexyz has fast 3D printing services.
sure-display is my go to person for eBay LED related stuff.
Digikey and Mouser has high power LEDs and most any electronics part you need.
Roithner Lasertechnik has hard to find LEDs and lasers.
Edmund Optics has about any optical component you can ask for.
Dan's Small Parts has very difficult to find and no longer made electronic parts with an emphasis on RF electronics.
StellarNet is a good source for spectrometers. I use the Green-Wave 350-1100nm, slit 50, 600uM cable, with a cosine and a two degree lens.
Test Equipment Depot is where most my electronics lab gear comes from.
No, aluminum foil will not burn your plant. No, it won't burn. Once again, it won't burn. I couldn't even get tomato to burn outdoors with a crinkled Mylar reflector. Foil is a little over 90%-95% reflective as measured by my spectrometer with a diffused light source (it can be tricky to measure aluminum foil and most people are likely doing it wrong). Crinkled foil doesn't change this, it just diffuses the light more. It's not flammable (pdf). Use the shinny side of heavy duty 2mil foil. Triple folding it makes good stand alone reflectors. There are better reflectors than foil in some applications. Flat white paint with barium sulfate added can be in the high 90's (pdf file).
A good calculator for determining the amount of light you have:
Maximum theoretical efficacy and the energy of various wavelengths of light:
eV stands for electronvolts and is a unit of mass or energy
735nm 6.14uMol/J 1.69eV per photon 660nm 5.51uMol/J 1.88eV 630nm 5.27uMol/J 1.97eV 550nm 4.60uMol/J 2.25eV 525nm 4.39uMol/J 2.36eV 470nm 3.92uMol/J 2.64eV 450nm 3.76uMol/J 2.76eV 375nm 3.13uMol/J 3.31eV 254nm 2.12uMol/J 4.88eV note- 254nm is mercury vapor in fluorescent lighting eV equals 1240 / wavelength of photon uMol/J * eV will equal 10.37 (there are rounding errors above) average energy to drive photosynthesis is 1.80eV (680nm + 700nm)/2 48 photons minimum are needed to create one sugar molecule in C3 plants this is six turns of the Calvin cycle this is also 86.4eV of energy some photons may be wasted requiring up to 60 photons for one sugar NPQ is largely the reason for the wasted photons inefficiency of carotenoids are also a reason for wasted photons 200-300 chlorophyll per reaction centerCCT means correlated color temperature. CRI means color rendering index.
lumen efficacy chart by wavelength from the book Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry. This is an example of "fair use" and a must have book for those wanting to get in to lighting theory.
full color chlorophyll fluorescent imaging leaf All the light/color you see here is through fluorescence from a 405nm laser
full color chlorophyll fluorescent imaging leaf saturated
same leaf under normal light
fluorescent imaging of plant with pH burn
green window with far red fluorescence
blue light scanning a cannabis leaf
inner light blue scan
photo diode used in lower cost PAR meters
SLT light sticks prototypes You can also see a green one lit up. I use violet, blue, green and red
blue light stress of cannabis This is 1000uMol/m2/sec of 450nm light for seven days
my electronics work area That's $8000-9000 worth of gear there and there is more
various corn techniques
spec plot of pink LED
spec plot of RGB LED These are at the same current levels.
RGB color shadowing
LED power supply noise
what light burn actually looks like
adding far red light to white light in a pepper plant
white versus minus blue light on a pepper plant
LST of Super Sweet 100 non-determinate tomato under HPS This strain is not normally grown indoors due to the size it can get.
leaf thickness scanner
tiny grow stations
photomorphogenesis sweet basil
effect of blue on sweet pea