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Creating the Modern Javanese Economy (P:art IV)
CREATING THE MODERN JAVANESE ECONOMYWhen one looks at the Indonesian economy, one has to split the Indonesia economy into three categories, you have resource rich provinces, non-resource rich in the outer islands and provinces on Java. The dichotomy of the Indonesian economy rest with resource rich provinces and Java. As we saw during the resource boom from 2005-2014, when there is a spike natural resource prices, it increases the value of the Rupiah, and makes labor intensive exports on Java less competitive. Although, the overall impact on the economy on Java is minimal, because Java's economy isn't just dependent on labor intensive manufacturing.
SUHARTO'S REPELITA V, REPELITA VI AND EARLY REFORMASI (1987-2003) UNFINISHED BUSINESSPreviously I did a post comparing Jokowi's economic policies to that of Suharto. This post will be more comprehensive than that post, by going into the historical context for reasoning behind Jokowi's economic policies. Basically Jokowi's economic policies are aimed at recapture the direction Indonesia was heading toward from 1987-1997, while at the same time implementing policies
- Prevent a repeat of Krismon
- Policies to alleviate corruption, inequality and poverty. While growth rates were high from 1987-1997, there was a lot social dissatisfaction during this period Anti-Chinese riots started in Medan in 1994, and there were periodic riots until 1999. In contrast, there were only two incidents of anti-Chinese rioting from 1970-1994.
However, what Indonesia has struggled with is moving along the same economic trajectory of the period between 1987-2002 which was growth based on manufacturing and industrialization. Much of this growth in manufacturing and industrialization was focused on Java, particularly West and East Java.
In 1987, manufacturing made up 17% of the economy, it peaked at 32% in 2002, and now its 20%. In contrast, Thailand went from 24% in 1987, peaking at 31% in 2010, dropping to 26% in 2018.
What are Repelitas?
During the Suharto era, the Indonesian government through the MPR would draft a GGHN (Garis-garis Besar Haluan Negara). This would last for 25 years. Every five years, the MPR would produce the Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN). From the RPJMN, government departments with Bappenas as the coordinator would produce a Pelita or Repelta **(**Rencana Pembangunan Lima Tahun). The Repelita began in 1969 and Indonesia had completed a full 25 year cycle with Repelita V ending in 1994. Here is a list of the five Repelita.
- Repelita I (1969–1974) bertujuan memenuhi kebutuhan dasar dan infrastruktur dengan penekanan pada bidang pertanian.
- Repelita II (1974–1979) bertujuan meningkatkan pembangunan di pulau-pulau selain Jawa, Bali dan Madura, di antaranya melalui transmigrasi.
- Repelita III (1979–1984) menekankan bidang industri padat karya untuk meningkatkan ekspor.
- Repelita IV (1984–1989) bertujuan menciptakan lapangan kerja baru dan industri.
- Repelita V (1989–1994) menekankan bidang transportasi, komunikasi dan pendidikan.
NOTE: The planning and project implementation under Suharto was very centralized, it was even more centralized than the Soviet Union. Almost every project had to go through Bappenas in Jakarta. Even regular road maintence would fall under the Development Budget (Anggaran Pembanguan) not Routine Budget (Anggaran Rutin). So how it worked is say the Department of Public Works (DPU) in Limbo wants to build a road, the regional office of the Department of Public Works (Kantor Wilayah), assuming the feasibility study (which usual was a separate project in itself) had been done. They would send the project proposal to Department of Public Works in Jakarta, they would modify it, than send it to Bappenas. Bappenas would determine whether the road fit within the development plan. If it did it they would send a proposal to Department of Finance. Because the system was so centralized, I heard stories where DPU project manager in the regions would send photos of completed projects in his progress report, even though construction hadn't even started.
This is where some of the notions of Javanese Imperialism comes from. Almost all the DPU engineers in 1970-80s were from Java or Sumatra. They would live in their own project housing, and if it was a foreign funded project along with the foreign expats. A Javanese engineer working on a World Bank project would often have more contact with the expat staff than the locals.. If they had money they would try to send their kids for schooling on Java. In those days, even good schools in some of the outer islands were really bad. For some of the more specialized construction task they would bring in workers from Java.
Why were Repelita V different from the previous Repelita?
Repelita I until IV were straight forward, because it was based on oil and gas revenues powering Indonesia's development. That was the logic in 1969, and it became more pronounced when the Oil price spiked after the OPEC embargo in 1974.
When the Oil price slumped in from US$30 a barrel in November 1985 to US$10 a barrel in July 1986, sent the Indonesian government scrambling. Even though Indonesia is a oil importer, the price of oil is still important because Indonesia still gets some of its revenue from oil and gas royalties. The cost of subsidies for gasoline work to counter some of the benefit from a rise in oil price. In the early 1980s, royalties from gas and oil made up 70% of the Indonesian government budget (p4)
The drop in the oil price led to liberalization of the Indonesian economy in 1986. While the oil price was dropped from US$40 in 1980 to US$30 in 1985, as you can see the drop was gradual compared to sharp drop in 1985. From the period from 1983-1986, the Indonesians tried to plug the current account deficit by imposing import restrictions, trying to boast non-oil exports, by devaluing the Rupiah in 1983. What did the 1986 Liberalization entail?
- 30% devaluation in 1986 and in 1994
- Eliminated import licensing for 197 items accounted for 19 percent of import value
- In the area of investment opportunity, the GOI relaxed the licence requirement and foreign investment restrictions
- In the financial sector, the 1983 reforms has reduced entry barrier for the new private banks and increase competitive pressure among the financial institutions. This policy were supported by policies of abolishing credit ceilings, eliminating interest rate controls and reducing subsidy and directed credits program, by 1990
The impact of these deregulation series were very impressive. It generated a very strong response from the private sector as indicated by the boom in private investment, rapid growth in non-oil exports, employment, labor productivity and output. This deregulation series have also affected to the structural changes in the economy. The share of oil in total GDP declined from 28 percent in 1980 to only 11 percent in 1993. The share of agriculture in non-oil GDP, which was as high as 55 percent in 1965, declined from 23 in 1985 to about 18 percent in 1993. At the same period, the non-oil manufacturing sector, on the other hand, increased its share from 11 percent to 19 percent, which is larger than that of agriculture share on GDP.From a Javanese perspective, what was important, was the Indonesian government scaled down the transmigration program.
|Repelita III 1979-84||Repelita IV 1984-89||Repelita V 1989-94||Repelita VI 1994-99||Repelita VII 1999-2000|
|Families actually moved||535,000||230,000||n/a||300.000||4,409|
|No. of people||2,469,560||1,061,680||n/a||1,500,000||22,000|
JAVA'S COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGEJava's competitive advantage is its large population crammed in a very small geographical location and its people.
Java has a population of roughly 150 Million crammed in 138,793 km2. The only place in East Asia and Southeast Asia that would rival Java in terms of concentration of population is the Yangtze River Delta, or what the Chinese call the Jiangnan (South Bank of the Yangtze River Delta). The Yangtze River Delta has a population of about 140 Million. From the Tang Dynasty to the late 19th century, the Yangtze River Delta to the middle of the 18th century, Yangtze River Delta was the richest region in the world. Even the Pearl River Delta, China's export hub doesn't come close to matching the population characteristic of Java. Guangdong, the province which Pearl River Delta is a part of, has a population of 110 Million spread out in an area twice the size of Java.. In addition, the Yangtze River Delta and especially the Pearl River Delta, population figures are inflated by migrant workers who's villager are located in other provinces. Guangdong resident population is 80 Million.
In Southeast Asia historically, Java was the population center of the region. Until the 1800s, Java had a 30-40% of Southeast Asia population.. However, until the 1980s, it was still less populated than both the Yangtze and Pearl Delta. In1800, Java had a population of 3-4 Million compared to China's population of 300 Million. In Southeast Asia, no other region can match Java's population traits. Luzon has a population of 60 Million, Mekong Delta about the size of Central Java only has a population of 17 Million, the Red River Delta in North Vietnam has a population 23 Million over 15000 km2, Jabotabek has a population of 32 Million in an 6300 km2.
Why is Java's population characteristic a competitive advantage? Paul Krugman's, currently a columnist for the New York Times, explains it in his work on the importance of location in dictating trade patterns. For this he won the Nobel Prize in 2008. The basis of his work was his paper which he wrote at MIT in 1991 titled Increasing Returns and Economic Geography. This is what he said
obvious in retrospect; but it certainly took me a while to see it. ... The only good news was that nobody else picked up that $100 bill lying on the sidewalk in the interimHe summarize it very simply in his introduction to his paper
This paper develops a simple model that shows how a country can endogenously become differentiated into an industrialized "core"and an agricultural "periphery." In order to realize scale economies while minimizing transport costs, manufacturing firms tend to locate in the region with larger demand, but the location of demand itself depends on the distribution of manufacturing. Emergence of a core-periphery pattern depends on transportation costs, economies of scale, and the share of manufacturing in national income.It really boils down to the first two aspect, the economic of scale and transportation cost (a component of transaction cost). Also a larger population back in a small area allows for greater specialization
For non-Economist, I will give you an example. Say you decide to build a factory in West Kalimantan which has a population of 5 Million spread out over a 147,000 km2. You will quickly run into problems, you have a hard time finding technicians and suppliers. Just say you find a supplier, but he is 4 hours drive away from your factory, this increases you transportation cost. Whereas if you were to put the factory in Central java, you have an easier time finding technicians, given its population of 35 million located in an area of 32,000 km2. You find 4 suppliers located only 15 minutes away.
As I explained in my previous post, Why Prabowo-Sandi Lost: Caught by the Javanese Tsunami, the Javanese and the Balinese are a visual people. I will give you some example, some anecdotal and other with historical references..One of Clifford Geertz later works, that was much debunked by other scholars was Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali he argues that Bali of the 19th century was not a hydraulic state (ie controlling the population through irrigation: or oriental despotic, but a Theatre state were ower served pomp, not pomp power. Geertz argued that it could be applied to all of the Mandala state of SEA, Java, Siam, Khmer and Burma. Because the state was a Theater State, the society produce a lot of artisans and craftsmen.
You could make the argument that also applies the Javanese particularly in the period from Treaty of Giyanti in 1756 until the start of the Java War in 1825. The Treaty of Giyanti split the Mataram Sultanate between the Sultan of Surakarta and the Sultan of Yogyakarta. The rivalry between Jakarta and Yogyakarta starts after the Treaty of Giyanti, and the most intense expression of this rivalry was in the arts. The period from 1755-1825 is considered the high point of Javanese culture, its during this period Serat Centhini is finally completed.
The one area were the Javanese are well known for is wood working and carpentry. This skill was evident since the 1300s. The large ships of the Majapahit Navy were built in Jepara ( Charting the Course of Early Modern Southeast Asia by Anthony Reid, "The Rise and Fall of Sino-Javanese Shipping). In the 19th century, Javanese carpenters were sought after. The King of Siam, Chulalongkorn, brought back Javanese carpenters and craftsmen during a trip to Java in 1896 to help build his palace
The woodworking tradition continues to this day. One of the industries that Central Java, beside textiles, wants to get Chinese manufacturers to invest in, is Furniture Manufacturing. The reason is because it its barrier to entry are high compared to low skilled manufacturing like garments. Even in China, the export furniture industry is located in Dongguan, a town located in center of the Pearl River Delta. The reason for this is the best carpenters in China are Cantonese. The Cantonese are also known as skilled goldsmiths and wood carvers. Because of the trade war, BKPM and Central Java are even more aggressive in trying to get furniture manufacturer in China to move to Indonesia in particular Central Java. BKPM is explicitly targeting factories in Dongguan.
BKPM bermitra dengan asosiasi manufaktur mebel Indonesia untuk roadshow di kota Dongguan di China. Kota itu pusat industri mebel di China," ujar Kepala BKPM Thomas Lembong, Jakarta, Rabu (30/1/2019). "Kami fasilitasi pabrik mebel dari China ke Indonesia. Khususnya ke Jawa Tengah," sambung mantan Menteri Perdagangan itu.Its the reason why there are very few Cantonese people in Java, because since Java had their own carpenters, silver smiths and woodcarvers. Most of the Cnatonese people on Java are involved in the restaurant trade. another speciality. Nearly all the big Chinese banquet halls in Medan, Singapore, Surabaya, Jakata are run by Cantonese people. Bakmi Gajah Mada is owned bya Cantonese family.
NOTE: The skills set that comes with furniture making and wood carving can be applied to other industries like toy manufacturing. Dongguan is also the center of China's toy industy, responsible for 50% of China's toy production. Hong Kong used to be the tou manufacturing capital of the world, but in the 1980s they moved over to Dongguan. Even more so than furniture manufacturing, toy manufacturing is an industry that is very difficult to duplicate, but once a region is able to develop a manufacturing cluster it can stay there for decades. Toy manufacturing is very involved, there are sourcing specialist, marketing people and toy designers. Indonesia is also targetting the toy industry in China, with Central Java as its main destination.
What Cultures Are More Suited For Factory Work?
Right now in Asia with the trade war going on, its really a contest of picking the least ugly. The labor markets in Vietnam is already very tight. Thailand has long has labor shortages, many of the factory workers are Cambodia and Burmese. The education and development levels aren't as good as Indonesians or native Thais.
This is going to be controversial topic, but I feel people ignore it their a peril. Some of it will be based on anecdotal accounts, others will be more historical / academic research. It will be general overview, and I won't restrict my examples from Indonesia, or Southeast Asia, but draw from examples in the Middle East and Africa.
What factory owners want is regimentation and routine. They want societies were people are easily regimented and stick to routine. A civilization influences its culture. A farmer would be more suited for factory work than nomad. Outside of this example, it becomes more complicated. A civilization with a long history of sedentary farming and a government that collects taxes from its inhabitants will develop a culture more suited for regimentation and routine required to work in a factory floor. Prior to the 19th century, the most densely populated regions of the world were Western Europe, South Asia and East Asia. For example, the reason why the Dutch were able to colonize Java was because in 1800, the population of the Netherlands was 2 Million vs 3-4 Million for Java., but the VOC could draw in human resources from the rest of Protestant, especially adjacent German states. The German states had a population of about 20 Million, roughly double the population of Southeast Asia.
There is the colonial myth that people in the tropics were lazy, because of the climate. In my opinion it has more likely had to do with population density, which allowed and required rulers in densely populated areas to organize the population to extract more resource from them for infrastructure or war. They created institutions to extract resources from the population and to manage them. People ask which comes first culture or institutions, it depends. These institution subsequently had an impact on the culture. In Europe and China prior to the 1800, they had a long history were rulers taxed the populace through taking a % of their crops and corvee labor. In Indonesia, particularly outside Java, prior to colonialism, taxation systems were primitive, were not onerous, and didn't tax production preferring to raises income through taxing trade. This is from the Indonesian Directorate General of Taxation
Meskipun kemudian masyarakat mendapat imbalannya berupa jaminan keamanan dan ketertiban dari raja. Perlu dicatat bahkan pada masa itu beberapa kerajaan seperti Majapahit, Demak, Pajang, dan Mataram mengenal sistem pembebasan pajak. Terutama pajak atas kepemilikan tanah yang biasa disebut tanah perdikan. Biasanya pembebasan tersebut diatur dalam beleid yang dituangkan baik dalam prasasti ataupun dicatat dalam kitab kesusastraan. Ketika masuk era kolonialisasi oleh Belanda dan bangsa Eropa pajak mulai dikenakan.In contast, in Imperial China the main source of taxation was the land tax. It could range from officially 3-4% (unofficially more) during Qing Dynasty, or as high as 25% during the Tag Dynasty. Peter Carey in his article Changing Javanese Perceptions of the Chinese Communities in Central Java, 1755-1825 explains why the Dutch and Javanese Sultan instituted a system of toll booth to tax trade was because they didn't have capacity to do land surveys to tax farmers at the source of production (ie land tax)
In Java, and by extension Indonesia,the area were demand for forced labor services was most intensive near the centers of feudal power Yogyakarta and Surakarta. The colonial Cultivation System was an intensification and extension of this system throughout the island of Java.
WHY MANUFACTURING IS STILL IMPORTANT?Manufacturing and industrialization is important to develop a country's economy, because that is how the West and later on Japan and South Korea developed initially. As the World Bank economist point in this article in an Indian news site . For a country like India to bet on services is risky, because such a theory hasn't been proven yet.
Further arguments are made that with automation and 3D Printing, that the demand for cheap labor will decline or manufacturing will be localized. China has automated some of its manufacturing jobs, but for the vast majority of manfacturers its too expensive and/or not suited. You get articles, where they said that Dongguan spent US$57 Million on automation last year Dongguan is a US$100 Billion economy, easily 60% of it is in manufacturing.
At one point a decade ago, some people thought that India could depend on IT services, but no serious Economist would hold such a view, given how small the overall demand for IT services worldwide is US$ 1.1 Trillion, much of that isn't exported, compared to a total world GDP of 88 Trillion.
HOW WAS THE PERIOD FROM 1987-2003 DIFFERENT?For the Javanese economy, the period between 1987-2003 can be chareacterized byt emergence of industrialization and growth of the manufacturing sector particularly in West and Eats Java. What makes this special, it was the first time since the colonial period that the Indonesian government was playing to Java's compariative advantage, its large densely packed population
In late 19th century colonial Southeast Asia, Java was its technological and modern jewel. Earlier I mentioned, King Chulalongkorn visit to Java in 1896. His main purposes wasn't to buy wood carvings and batik, but to examine Java's modern administration ,agriculture and infrastructure. He also visited India, Malaya and Singapore for the same purposes. The trip in 1896 was the second of three visits, the other two being in 1871 and 1901.
However, in my opinion, the 1990s' industrialization push on Java was in my opinion half hearted for three reasons.
- The Indonesian government still continued with a large transmigration effort in Repelita IV between 1994-1999.
- Suharto was still iintent on punish Central Java for its support of the PKI, so little effort was made to industrialize Central Java. In my opinion its like building a two leg stool, Instead of two industrial areas - West Java and East Java, with Central Java in the picture, you essentially have just one big industrial cluster - the Island of Java.
- Essential infrastructure on Java was postponed and delayed. There were plans to build the trans-Java highway in the 1970s, but it was only completed last year Before that the main route was Jalur Pantura, a road that was built in 1811, and had only been widen after independence. To be fair,the road connecting Hong Kong to Guangzhou was pretty much like Jalan Pantura until 1997.
WHY DID INDONESIA JAVA DE-MANUFACTURIZE?As I explained in the previous paragraph, Indonesian, namely Java, started to deindustrialize (or demanfacturize) starting from 2003, There are four reasons for the decline in manufacturing
- Factories shifting to China, particularly after China;s entrance to the WTO
- The rise in the Rupiah caused by commodities boom from 2003-2013.
- The rapid increased in the Minimum Wage during those years
- New Regulations introduced in 2002/2003 that greatly increased severance pay.
Comparative advantage in Java seems to be in lower-skilled firms and those less intensive in energy use. Low-tech, less skill-intensive, and medium-size firms reported the highest average TFP. Low capital-intensive firms, mostly those employing higher skills.On the third issue of rising minimum wages, regional government in Jakarta, Central Java and West Java have fixed the increase to the rate of nominal GDP growth. The minimum wage in Jakarta is about 5% higher than the minimum wage in Surabaya
PERFORMANCE IN REBUILDING ITS MANUFACTURING BASEWhile I think Jokowi's infrastructure splurge in the other islands, outside Sulawesi, had a large political element, the reality is the Jakarta election of 2017 cost Jokowi about 2.5 years. From October 2014 to October 2016, Jokowi launched 14 reform packages, and only two in the remaining years in office.
Manufacturing as a share of the economy is still slowly dropping, and recent reports show its growing slower than the overall economy. Manufacturing grew at 3.54% vs 5,05% for the overall economy. The indonesian government realizes how important manufacturing is.
However, among Indonesian politicians and government officials, there is a strong calls to spread development outside Java, even setting up manfacturing outside Java.
“Our manufacturing industries are mostly located on the island of Java, so we create all our logistics plans based on that location, which raises logistics and transaction costs,” Edi said during a seminar on the manufacturing industry at Bank Indonesia (BI) headquarters on Monday.The economic reasoning doesn't make much sense for two reasons, on an equity perspective, java's contribution to the economy is 55% of GDP, which is inline with its population of 57%. In Central Java, its share of the GDP is much smaller than its share of the population. Secondly, it undermines the benefits of economies of scale you get from geographic concentration. When the Indonesian government proposed establishing more industrial zone on Java,this was response by some economist.
People bring up Morowali Industrial Estate in Central Sulawesi/ as an example of industrial development outside Java. The only reason why investors invest in Moroiwali is its located near a large nickel deposit, and the Indonesia government ban on the export of nickel ore. I think Jokowi has the right approach by trying to increase the value added of some of the exports like Palm Oil and Coffee.
Central Java Leading the Way
Five years ago I posted an article in the Financial Times titled Indonesia pushes Central Java as Asian low-cost manufacturing hub. Central Java is now the third largest recipient of both domestic and foreign investment after Jakarta and West Java, beating out East Java. Up until the 3rd quarter of 2019, foreign investors (PMA) have invested 32 Trillion Rp (about US$2.5 Billion. It could easily end up over US$3 Billion for 2019.In 2014 it was only US$222 Million. Remember 2019 is an election year, in 2020 it would be even higher.
What Central Java was missing before was Industrial Parks and Energy, the Indonesian government remedied that by opening larger Industrial Parks notebly the Kendal Industrial Park in 2016. The Kendal Industrial Park at full capacity is 2700 HA, almost 6 times the size of the second biggest Industrial Park in Central Java, A month ago there was a Chinese furniture manufacturer that was ready to invest, but needed 2000 HA
The Central Java government has been very aggressive in trying to attract foreign investment. They streamline the permit process. Going from US$200 to US$3 Billion in 5 years is very impressive. On a per capita basis they have been able to get about 1/2 the investment Vietnam got in 2018 (Vietnam got about US$ 18 Billion)
MISSING AND SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES: CHINA, INDIA AND BANGLADESHI am going to diverge and talk about how other countries, can neglect their core economic engines, and how others can seize it. Its not unique to Indonesia. I will start with China.in 1980s. During the beginning of the reform period in 1980s, Guangdong, because it was close to Hong Kong opened up first. Shanghai really didn't open up until the early 1990s. I been to Guangzhou and Shanghai in 1987, and Guangzhou was ahead of Shangahi. Even though the Yangtze River Delta was the core economic region in China, certain factions in Communist Party at the time didn't trust Shanghai amd Shanghaiese. They top Chinese leaders like Deng Xiaoping felt it was too politically risky to open up Yangze River Delta. In contrast, Guangdong was the pheriphery, and there was less of a risk. The skyline of 1987 Shanghai was the same as it was in the 1950s.
While some Indians might not agree with this assassment, I think the main reason why India hasn't developed as quickly as China, is she has neglected what was traditional been her core population and economic center - Ganges Plain and Ganges River Delta. This area includes states like West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh If you look at the population density map, these states represent the dark red portion in Northern India. The Ganges River flow through these states. These states have a combined population of 550 Million, najung up almost 50% of India's population. They are among the poorest state in India, with per capita incomes 1/3 to 1/4 that of national average of US$2000. Outside of West Bengal, the female literacy in these states on averege about 50%.. They have an acronym to describe the last four states, its BIMARU, which means sick in Hindi. The fertility rate in BIMARU states is abut 3-4 vs 2.1 for Indian average.
Calcutta in West Bengal was the capital and economic center of British India until 1911, when the British moved the capital to New Delhi. While Bombay was starting to gain over Calcutta, Calcutta was still India's major commercial until the 1930-40s.. There are a lot of theories as to why Calcutta declined, Beginning of the 20th century, economic activity shifted from East to West in India, toward the Arabian Sea. If you look at FDI Indian receives the bulk of it goes to states in Western part of India
Bangaldesh's per capita income used to be 50% of India's a decade ago, by next year its per capita GDP will most likely exceed India's In the past it was common for Bangladeshi too cross over illegally into India to find work, and the Indian Border Guards had a shoot to kill policy. What Bangladesh has been able to do is to use its otherwise poor geography to its advantage. Its a densely populated country with a population of 164 Million packed into an area the size of Java. Bangladeshi primary industry is garment production for export. Its the second largest garment exporter in the world after China.
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- A.A.L. - 2012 - 2017
- Ab-Soul - Control System
- Africa Hitech - 93 Million Miles
- Agalloch - Marrow of the Spirit
- Alan Vega - It
- Alex Cameron - Miami Memory
- Algiers - The Underside of Power
- Altar of Plagues - Teethed Glory and Injury
- Anderson .Paak - Oxnard
- Andrew Jackson Jihad - Knife Man
- Angel Olsen - My Woman
- Arcade Fire - The Suburbs
- Ariel Pink - Pom Pom
- Armand Hammer - Paraffin
- Autechre - Exai
- BADBADNOTGOOD - III
- BROCKHAMPTON - Saturation Trilogy
- Battles - Gloss Drop
- Beach House - Teen Dream
- Behemoth - The Satanist
- Beyoncé - Lemonade
- Big K.R.I.T. - 4eva Is a Mighty Long Time
- Bill Callahan - Dream River
- Billie Eilish - When We All Fall Asleep, Where Do We Go?
- Billy Woods - History Will Absolve Me
- Björk - Vulnicura
- C418 - Minecraft OST
- Car Seat Headrest - Teens of Denial
- Carly Rae Jepsen - E.MO.TION
- Charli XCX - Charli
- Chelsea Wolfe - Abyss
- Chuck Person - Eccojams Vol. 1
- Clarence Clarity - No Now
- Colin Stetson - New History Warfare Vol. 2
- Converge - All We Love We Leave Behind
- Crying - Beyond the Fleeting Gales
- Crystal Stilts - In Love with Oblivion
- Daft Punk - Random Access Memories
- Danny Brown - Atrocity Exhibition
- Daughters - You Won’t Get What You Want
- David Bowie - Blackstar
- Deafheaven - Sunbather
- Dean Blunt - Black Metal
- Death Grips - The Money Store
- Death Grips - The Powers That B
- Deerhoof - Breakup Song
- Deerhunter - Halcyon Digest
- Denzel Curry - Taboo
- Destroyer - Kaputt
- Dope Body - Natural History
- Dorian Electra - Flamboyant
- Drake - If You’re Reading This It’s Too Late
- D’Angelo and the Vanguard - Black Messiah
- Earl Sweatshirt - Some Rap Songs
- Everything Everything - Get to Heaven
- FKA twigs - LP1
- Farrah Abraham - My Teenage Dream Ended
- Father John Misty - Pure Comedy
- Fleet Foxes - Helplessness Blues
- Flying Lotus - Cosmogramma
- Flying Lotus - You’re Dead!
- Four Tet - There Is Love in You
- Frank Ocean - Blonde
- Freddie Gibbs & Madlib - Piñata
- George Clanton - Slide
- Ghost - Meliora
- Gil Scott Heron - I’m New Here
- Godspeed You! Black Emperor - ‘Allelujah! Don't Bend! Ascend!
- Gorguts - Colored Sands
- Gorillaz - Plastic Beach
- Grave Babies - Crusher
- Grouper - A I A
- Haru Nemuri - Haru To Shura
- High On Fire - Luminiferous
- Horrendous - Idol
- Iceage - Plowing Into the Field of Love
- Idles - Joy as an Act of Resistance
- Iglooghost - Neo Wax Bloom
- Indian - From All Purity
- Injury Reserve - Floss
- JPEGMAFIA - Veteran
- Jack White - Boarding House Reach
- James Blake - Self-Titled
- James Ferraro - Far Side Virtual
- Janelle Monáe - The Archandroid
- Jay-Z - 4:44
- Jeff Rosenstock - Worry
- Joanna Newsom - Have One on Me
- Jon Hopkins - Immunity
- Julia Holter - Have You in My Wilderness
- Ka - The Knights Gambit
- Kali Uchis - Isolation
- Kamasi Washington - The Epic
- Kanye West - The Life of Pablo
- Kendrick Lamar - To Pimp a Butterfly
- Kero Kero Bonito - Bonito Generation
- Kids See Ghosts - Self-Titled
- Killer Mike - R.A.P. Music
- King Gizzard & The Lizard Wizard - Infest the Rats’ Nest
- King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard - Nonagon Infinity
- Kirin J. Callinan - Bravado
- Krallice - Years Past Matter
- Kurt Vile - Wakin on a Pretty Daze
- Kvelertak - Self-Titled
- Kyary Pamyu Pamyu - Nandacollection
- LCD Soundsystem - This Is Happening
- La Dispute - Wildlife
- Lana Del Rey - Norman Fucking Rockwell!
- Leonard Cohen - You Want It Darker
- Leviathan - Scar Sighted
- Liars - Mess
- Lil B - God’s Father
- Lil Ugly Mane - Mista Thug Isolation
- Lingua Ignota - Caligula
- Little Simz - GREY Area
- Little Women - Throat
- Liturgy - H.A.Q.Q.
- Lizzo - Cuz I Love You
- MGMT - Congratulations
- MGMT - Little Dark Age
- Mac Miller - Faces
- Mariam the Believer - Blood Donation
- Mark Kozelek & Jimmy LaValle - Perils from the Sea
- Matana Roberts - COIN COIN Chapter Four: Memphis
- Melt Banana - Fetch
- Mount Eerie - A Crow Looked at Me
- Nails - Unsilent Death
- Natalia Lafourcade - Musas Vol. 2
- Neil Cicierega - Mouth Moods
- Neon Indian - VEGA INTL. Night School
- Nicolas Jaar - Space Is Only Noise
- Noname - Room 25
- Ondatrópica - Self-Titled
- Oneohtrix Point Never- Replica
- Open Mike Eagle - Brick Body Kids Still Daydream
- Otoboke Beaver - Itekoma Hits
- Oxbow - Thin Black Duke
- PJ Harvey - Let England Shake
- Panopticon - Roads to the North
- Perfume Genius - No Shape
- Perfume Genius - Put Your Back N 2 It
- Playboi Carti - Die Lit
- Portico Quartet - Self-Titled
- Prurient - Frozen Niagara Falls
- Purple Mountains - Self-Titled
- Pusha T - Daytona
- Queens of the Stone Age - …Like Clockwork
- Radiohead - A Moon Shaped Pool
- Ratking - So It Goes
- Regina Spektor - Remember Us to Life
- Richard Dawson - 2020
- Rosalía - Los Angeles
- Run the Jewels - Run the Jewels 2
- SOPHIE - Oil of Every Pearl’s Un-Insides
- SZA - Ctrl
- Scott Walker - Bish Bosch
- Shabazz Palaces - Black Up
- Slauson Malone - A Quiet Farwell, 2016-2018
- Sleep - The Sciences
- Solange - A Seat at the Table
- Sons of Kemet - Your Queen Is a Reptile
- Spiritualized - Sweet Heart Sweet Light
- St. Vincent - Strange Mercy
- Sturgill Simpson - A Sailor’s Guide to Earth
- Sufjan Stevens - Carrie & Lowell
- Sun Kil Moon - Benji
- Sun Kil Moon - Common as Light and Love Are Red Valleys of Blood
- Swans - To Be Kind
- Tame Impala - Lonerism
- The Books - The Way Out
- The Caretaker - An Empty Bliss Beyond This World
- The Knife - Shaking the Habitual
- The Oh Sees - Orc
- The Weeknd - Trilogy
- This Routine Is Hell - Howl
- Tierra Whack - Whack World
- Tim Hecker - Ravedeath, 1972
- Tim Hecker - Virgins
- Timber Timbre - Hot Dreams
- Titus Andronicus - The Monitor
- Touché Amoré - Stage 4
- Travis Scott - Rodeo
- Traxman - Da Mind of Traxman
- Tyler The Creator - Flower Boy
- Tyler, the Creator - Igor
- U.S. Girls - In a Poem Unlimited
- Uncommon Nasa - New York Telephone
- Vampire Weekend - Contra
- Viagra Boys - Street Worms
- Waka Flocka Flame - Flockaveli
- Weyes Blood - Titanic Rising
- Women - Public Strain
- Xiu Xiu - Girl with Basket of Fruit
- Xiu Xiu - Plays the Music of Twin Peaks
- YG - Still Brazy
- Yazz Ahmed - Polyhymnia
- clipping. - CLPPNG
- slowthai - Nothing Great About Britain
edit 26-02-2020: Added Against All Logic 2012 - 2017 in FLAC.